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- : Formerly Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic also Kir·ghi·zia (kîr-gēˈzhə, -zhē-ə, -zē-ə)Kyrgyzstan A country of west-central Asia bordering on southeast Kazakhstan and northwest China. The region was inhabited probably before the 13th century by the Kyrgyz and was annexed by Russia in 1864. It became an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union in 1926 and a constituent republic in 1936. Kyrgyzstan declared its independence in 1991 following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Bishkek is the capital and the largest city. Population: 5,280,000.